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Cellular Clocks and Metabolism

B0004343 Organelles in a pancreas cell

Until recently all circadian clock rhythms were assumed to be triggered from a central brain clock, synchronizing sleep, wakefulness, hormones, and metabolism. Now, many more functions have been found related to clocks and the variations throughout the body cannot all be triggered by one central clock. In fact, each tissue…

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Hippocampus Brain Wave Signals

When electricity is measured in a brain region, the total value includes the sum of electricity from many different sources. Part of the measurement refers to electrical signals of the action potential along the axon. Some refers to the electrical field surrounding various brain structures. Another represents synchronous…

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Where is Subjective Experience in the Brain?

Current science has no explanation for subjective experience. There isn’t even an adequate definition of consciousness. Recent research continues many approaches in attempts to find a brain region that is correlated with basic awareness or consciousness. In order to proceed without definitions, study attempts to find…

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Progress and Problems in Brain Mapping

The holy grail of many neuroscients is to map neuronal connections and from this explain how the brain (and mind) works. There are approximately 80 billion neurons and there are up to tens of thousands of possible connections from each neuron, which makes the number of synapses an unfathomable astronomical number. In fact,…

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Convergent Evolution of Intelligence

Advanced intelligence has evolved in vastly different types of creatures. Intelligence occurred independently even though these creatures started as small multi cellular organisms and diverged in evolution 500 million years ago. They each used different building blocks, genetic clusters, molecular cascades and signaling….

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Electric DNA and Mind

The many electrical factors related to brain function bolsters the theory that mind might consist of electromagnetic fields, gradients and currents (one of several theories). Posts have described how in the developing fetus electrical synapses lay out the detailed brain structure with chemical synapses built on this…

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Electrical Fields Guiding 3D Shape of Cells and Organs

How does the cell know what size and shape it should be? Many cells alter their shape to provide different functions, like microglia. Even more complex is the question as to how organs, limbs, and creatures know what size and shape they should be when they are growing. How do the cells know how and where to form an organ?…

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Where is Mind in Nature

All Searching for the Mind posts describe intelligent behavior in nature that is difficult to explain using theories that only allow for random interactions between molecules—that is, without mind. Intelligent behavior in nature can be observed in, at least, 6 orders of magnitude from the size of a human being down to…

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The Origin of Life and Consciousness

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Despite vast research in all scientific areas, the origin of life and consciousness remains unknown. Bottom up molecular theories assume that chemical properties, reactions, and unique environments can explain the origin and evolution of life. Information in cells may need top down, causal explanations. Can life…

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Brain Electricity and the Mind

When the topic is color a group of neurons oscillate with synchronous beta waves between two brain regions.  When the content changes from color to orientation a different group of neurons have the same synchronous beta waves between two other regions. In this experiment it appears that synchronous waves are…

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Quantum Computers in Biology: Quantum Effects in the Brain and Mind

Mind has strange features and so does the tiny world of atoms. Mind can instantly link to an almost infinite number of different associations.  It can conceptualize the size of the universe at one moment. A second later it hears someone calling, then a moment later empathizes with political unrest thousands of miles…

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Neuronal Connections and the Mind, The Connectome

In the age of computers and the Internet one of the most appealing theories of how mind is generated from the neurons of the brain is by the computation of large networks of connecting neurons. Olaf Sporns  (Resources) coined the term “connectome;” it refers to the mapping of all neuronal connections. There are many…

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What is Mind? Brain Oscillations, Synchronous Brain Waves and Consciousness

One of the major current theories of consciousness is that brain oscillations, also called brain waves, correlate with specific mental states.  It is the synchronous waves from different regions, that is, those that are beating at the same rate, that are believed to be important for the connection of different brain…

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What is the Mind? 5 Theoretical Possibilities

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Mind is usually considered that part of a person that allows a unified conscious awareness of the world, our bodies, and experiences, including thinking and feeling. Since mind seems to depend upon molecular activity in cells and in brain circuits, scientists generally assume that mind is created by, or emerges from the…

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Where is Mind? Orders of Magnitude

Our minds conceptualize galaxies billions of light-years away and grasp the composition of tiny atoms, too small to be observed by any known tools. Our minds consider our physical being, in addition to reflecting on consciousness and existence. Where is this thing we call a mind? And, how is it that the mind has such an…

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