The Remarkable Language of Cells

B0003526 Cells in the cerebellumAll living creatures communicate, providing group activity and defense. But, it has been surprising to find individual cells, also, have very elaborate communication. Amoebae communication is so complex that individual creatures are able to combine into what appears to be a multi cellular organism and then go back to independent life later. Human cells use thousands of signals to talk to each other, such as cytokines, neurotransmitters, peptides, protein factors, RNAs, as well as electric oscillations and fields.

Humans build receptors for wireless signals (radios, TVs, cellular phones, and laptops) and send wireless signals (text, telephones and computers). Microbes, T cells, and microglia, also, send and pick up wireless signals using cytokines, neurotransmitters, RNAs, proteins, and electricity. Recent research shows that cells, also, use light photons to communicate. Humans are constantly inundated with electromagnetic signals, but can only pick up the ones for which they have receivers. Microbes, T cells and microglia, also, receive only those messages for which they have built specific protein receptors.

Many previous posts have described cellular signaling—among viruses and bacteria, plant and animal cells. Please refer to the specific posts for the details of each cell type mentioned below.

All Cells Communicate in Many Ways

SynapseIt is well known how neurons signal with neurotransmitters. These same neurons, also, signal with synchronous waves to far away regions and electrical synapses for cells that are close by. It is not as well known that neurons signal sideways from unmyelinated axons to local immune cells using cytokines and neurotransmitters. Neurons, also, transport large genetic molecules in vesicles and special nanotubes (cytonemes) between cells.

h_cytokinePathwayThe more numerous glia brain cells—microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrites—use the same elaborate signaling with neurotransmitters, immune cytokines and vesicles for larger molecules and nanotubes. Microglia, astrocytes and T cells, also, communicate by touch.

Immune cells use a very large complex communication system with hundreds of different cytokines and chemokines (a specialized cytokine that specializes in telling cells where to go). Many other cells, such as skin and the intestinal lining cells, also, use similar complex signaling back and forth to trillions of microbes on one side and the immune cells just below.

Nanotubes Between Cells – Cytonemes

From Ayacop

From Ayacop

Recently, cells of all types (humans and microbes) have been found to have very small nano tubes communicating with other cells. These cytonemes go travel long distances to transfer molecules, signals and genetic information.

Cytonemes are fragile but can extend the distance of 100 cells. They are just too small to have been noticed until recently, but now appear to be very common.

Vesicle Communication

N0019830 EndocytosisRound membrane sacs, called vesicles and exosomes, are filled with signal molecules of all kinds—neurotransmitters, proteins with specific functions, and DNA and RNA of all kinds. They are very widely used by almost all microbe, plant and animal cells. They are very much like viruses created by the cells.

Neurons have been observed sending vesicles with proteins, small RNAs and DNA back and forth with glia cells. They have very important effects, such as oligodendrocytes sending heat shock proteins and glycolytic enzymes to protect the neuron from oxidative stress.

There are many different types of vesicles:

  • Vacuole Vesicles: for plant cells to store food
  • B0004611 Phagocytic vesicle and lysosomes inside a macrophageSecretion Vesicles: neurotransmitters, hormones and material for extra cellular matrix.
  • Lysosomes: for waste disposal with enzymes to break down molecules
  • Transport Vesicles: transporting material inside the cell, compartment to compartment; from endoplasmic
reticulum to other sites; into blood.
  • Gas Vesicles: control microbe gas content for positioning for light or movement.
  • Extra cellular matrix vesicles: calcium, phosphate, lipids and necessary proteins to build bone matrix.
  • Microbes transfer material: they make their own
viruses and use injection mechanisms like phage viruses.
  • Viruses: sacs with material transferring genetic information
  • Neuronal vesicles: secrete and pick up prions

Communication with Light Photons

Recently, it has been found that cells are able to communicate with photons from cell to cell (called bio photon emissions). Cells can perform this type of communication even through glass, which shows that it is not a molecular Electromagnetic Spectrum And Visible Lightcommunication.

The research used microbes (ciliate Paramecium) in glass vials in the dark. Two different types of glass material allowed different wavelengths of light through—340 nm to long waves and 150nm (UV) to long waves. Cells were able to alter characteristics of nearby cells related to energy and cell division. The two different types of wavelengths resulted in different effects raising the question of different frequencies sending different types of information.

There are a variety of studies that have found some version of this light photon communication in yeast, crustacea, onion roots, and algae. There has, also, been cell-to-cell communication between cultured dying neurons and cancer cells that are separated in different glass containers.

Communication using RNA

Nucleosome With Dna ModelMost cells make many varieties of microRNAs that influence cell functions. They send them in exosomes (vesicles) to influence an entire class of cells. These RNAs reprogram cells and can greatly influence an entire function in an organism.

Primary Cilia – Center of Communication

Primary Cilia exist in all cells (microbes, plants and animal) and, although not widely known, are the center of communication with other cells. It is a stationary organ sticking Scientific illustration of an isolated animal cellout of cells with large numbers of receptors, and signaling and transport machinery inside.

Primary cilia receive and analyze mechanical and chemical forces and signals. They send signals to other parts of the cell, to other cells, or to the larger organism.

There are many specialized versions of the primary cilium throughout the nervous system, including for hearing, sight and smell. They sense urine flow in kidney cells, light wavelengths in eye cells, pressure in cartilage, and blood flow in heart cells.

Human Cells Communication

Platelet Communication

ARticle  NMR picture 3The platelet, even without a nucleus, has a surprisingly elaborate communication with other cells. It has many receptors and sends many signals; it is the vital first responder for trauma and inflammation. Platelets track microbes and signal for many different immune cells, stimulating inflammation. They, also, aid T cells and B cells.

Platelets secrete granules with many signals containing:

  • δ- contain molecules that regulate blood flow with nucleotides such as ADP; amines histamine and serotonin; and ions Ca2 and PO3-.
  • α- contain many different proteins and enzymes that attach and kill microbes.
  • λ- contain lysosomal vesicles with enzymes altering shape of clot for healing.

BruceBlaus  WIK diagram activated platelets  600px-Blausen_0740_PlateletsPlatelets signal with all four major chemokine receptor for long distance traveling. They have receptors for immunoglobulins, many pattern receptors and many important cytokines.

Platelets release many unique signals called kinocidins, which are class of large proteins. They signal other immune cell and kill microbes. Kinocidins are unusual in that they can be large full sized proteins or pieces cut by enzymes.

Intestine Epithelial Cell

B0006676 Villi from the small intestineThe one layer of cells lining the intestines  engages in extremely elaborate communication with the trillions of bacteria on one side and the largest amount of immune cells on the other. This single cell maintains positive and negative interactions with trillions of microbes; it modulates the immune system to accommodate thousands of different microbe communities; it determines digestion of food and production of vitamins. It, also, signals with a large number of cytokines back and forth in both directions.

B0006124 Goblet cellIntestinal epithelial cells are masters of maintaining order in a very chaotic situation, using a large number of different receptors and secreted signals. In other regions, these same signals would stimulate major inflammation because they do not expect a large amount of microbes. But, here the epithelial cell determines the strength of the signals and what response should occur.

Microbes signal to these cells for protection, but this can possibly increase cancer. So, the epithelial cell must maintain a very delicate balance. Signals to T cells either increase the immune presence or decrease it. Messages tell T cells to be tolerant or not.

The Skin Cell

Human Skin Cutaway Diagram, With Several Details.The skin epithelial cell, just like the intestinal cell, has trillions of microbes on one side and a large number of immune cells on the other. Like the intestinal cells they have very complex relations with bacteria and immune cells. They decide responses to toxins and injuries from the outside world. The keratinocyte gradually undergoes modification as it moves to the outer layers where it develops more receptors.

Skin cells have very extensive back and forth conversations with immune cells, microbes and the connective cells that make up the barrier. They determine the friendly microbes from unfriendly by signaling and determine which are allowed to stay on the surface. They are extremely active in calling for very specific immune cells when needed, using a language of hundreds of different cytokines and chemokines. They, also, have their own memory of immune history and the defenses related to specific microbes.

Ordinary Cells

B0004153 White blood cell - polymorphonuclear leucocyteMost cells that are not immune cells, also, have elaborate communication related to defense of microbe attacks. Cells produce many specific substances to call for help and to fight specific microbes. Interestingly, different neurons in different regions have developed different signals and attack molecules.

Three genes stimulated by interferon, (a factor produced by immune cells responding to an intrusion of an invader) trigger different approaches to fighting viruses in two kinds of brain cells. In these two different neurons, there are also differences in epigenetic markings and different microRNAs involved in the process of fighting the virus. It appears that each of these neurons evolved different mechanisms to fight the same virus.

There are many other examples of ordinary cells communicating. One example involves bone. Two types of cells, mesenchymal and cartilage, signal back and forth to determine the amount of bone that will grow on the cartilage. Mesenchyme signals limit the genes that make cartilage by modifying the gene and the histone. Another signal protects the cartilage growth.

Mitochondria Communicate With Neuron

B0004158 Organelles within a liver cellMitochondria are microbes that travel throughout neurons (and all other cells) keeping in close contact with the needs of the neuron. They communicate by docking near the endoplasmic reticulum and through cytokine signaling.

Mitochondria make essential energy for all processes including movement and
 recycling of neurotransmitter vesicles, assembly and movement of the scaffolding tubules, generation of electric charge in axons and dendrites, and maintenance of synaptic neuroplasticity. They regulate the calcium
 levels in the cell, which trigger axon signal firing and regulate 
apoptosis, whereby a cell is systematically dismantled without forming scars.

Cancer Cell Communication

B0006421 Breast cancer cellsCancer cell communication is unique in that they use all of the signals that human cells use, but, also, like microbes, defend their own community against other cells in the organism. Cancer cells use the same techniques that T cells and microbes use to rapidly change their metabolism. All three use their basic metabolic cycles, like the Krebs cycle, as communication signals to avoid challenges to rapid replication.

Many non-cancerous cells cooperate with cancers because of back and forth communication. Cancer cells are able to signal to structural cells like fibroblasts and blood vessel cells to build the cancer organ. Immune cells are fooled to give cancer growth factors behaving as if they were healing a wound. These chemokine signals activate receptors on blood vessels, which make them leaky.

Cancers have the same inter community chatter as microbes. Just as plants and microbes defend together against viruses, cancer cells signal to other cancer cells to protect against viruses.

Special Brain And Immune Cell Communication

Astrocytes Signaling

ImageJ=1.45sPrevious posts have elaborated on the critical work of astrocytes in producing, maintaining, and pruning synapses. They, also, control the blood flow.

Astrocytes use a large vocabulary of neurotransmitters, factors and cytokines to constantly communicate with the thousands of neurons they are in contact with, as well as microglia and other immune cells.

Astrocytes make up half of the brain and are much greater in number than neurons. They have a huge scaffolding sending signals to neurons that are critical to the function of neuroplasticity. Astrocyte signals use calcium fluctuations, not sodium and potassium as in neurons.

They communicate in a language of secreted factors that are absolutely necessary for brain function:

  • Apolipoprotein E, bound to cholesterol, stimulates synapses and stimulates the vesicles that carry the neurotransmitters to be released at the synapse.
  • Thrombospondins are large proteins critical for forming excitatory synapses, adhesion and scaffolding for the synapse.
  • Hevin is critical in adult brain synapse formation and maintenance.
  • Glypicans stimulate AMPA and NMDA receptors for function of excitatory neurons.
  • Ephrins stimulate synapses and neuronal stem cells

Astrocytes communicate, also, by touching neurons. They control when signals will go out to microglia to eliminate synapses, as well as many signals to immune cells. They attract the complement system.

Magnus Manske)    WK   C  AstrocyteAstrocyte calcium oscillations are extremely complex signals that are just now being researched. Along each arm of the astrocyte there are many different compartments that have diverse types of signaling to the adjacent neurons. Different types of neuroplasticity are stimulated by different types of calcium signaling from the astrocyte compartments lying near the synapses.

Different types of neurons are involved in different astrocyte signaling. Astrocytes can bridge the many different neuroplasticity mechanisms in the large circuits since they receive information from thousands of synapses at once.

Neurons Communicate Using Inflammation Pathways

B0007285 Human brain cellsNeuronal activity can, independently, create all of the original symptoms of inflammation—fever, redness, heat, and pain. This type of neuroinflammation is not based on response to microbes or injury. There are a large number of different immune and brain cells that signal back and forth stimulating this activity. Neurons use these complex pathways for different types of neuroplasticity.

Neurons trigger major inflammation in response to immune triggers, and “para-inflammation”, a subdued version to use in neuroplasticity. They can be triggered by the naked unmyelated axons, or segments of axons, with sideways local communication.

Chronic Pain A Conversation of Immune and Brain Cells

Signalling PainBack and forth communication between neurons and immune cells is very complex, often involving signaling with a language of hundreds of different signals between large numbers of different kinds of cells.

The neuro inflammation synapse includes pre and post synaptic neurons, astrocytes, microglia, T cells, endothelial (vessel lining) cells, macrophages and many other immune cells. With injury, microglia or platelets are the first responders. Both cells alter metabolism and shape; they multiply and start signaling. Astrocytes and T cells are rapidly involved. When neurons become involved, they secrete many other cytokines and chemokines. Extra cellular particles are secreted, which attract even more cellular signals.

There are so many different signals, that just to give some awareness of the complexity the following are some of the signals in this situation.

  • Presynaptic Neuron: glutamate, CCL2, IFNg, IL-1B, ROS, TNF, receptors TRPV1, TRPA1, IL-1R1, NMDAR
  • Astrocyte: IL-1b, TNF, EEAT1, EAAT2, CXCL1, IL-6,
  • Inhibitory Neuron: IL-1B, IL-6, ROS, TNF, GABA, Glycine,
  • T Cell and Microglia: BDNF, CCL2, IFNg, IL-1B, IL-6, IL-17, PGE2, ROS, TNF
  • Post synaptic neuron: TRKB, BDNF, KCC2, IL-1R1, GRK2, PGE2, PKA, ERK, CREB, EP2, GABAR, GlyR3, IL- 1B, NR2A, NR2B, NR1, NMDAR, IL-17, ROS, CCL2, AMPAR, TNFR1, CXCL1, CXCR2, CCR2

T Cell Communication

FEATURE Cancer and B Cells iStock_000019908954XSmallT cells communicate in many different ways and in different situations. They use a vast amount of cytokine communication with other immune cells; they communicate using cell-to-cell contact to many different immune cells, including directly helping B cells perfect antibodies. They are raised in the thymus, where they are trained to build many different receptors and signals. They are sensitive to each pattern brought to them and respond in many different ways. Also, IL-4 stimulates more BNDF from astrocytes to stimulate more neurons.

When T cells travel in the cerebral spinal fluid of the brain, they send wireless signals to the neurons to maintain cognition and learning. When they determine that there is an invader, T cells will shift to signal the brain to start the “sick feeling”, which lowers cognition and prepares the body to fight off an infection.

T cells secrete cytokines for and against inflammation in different situations.

Microglia Communication

FEATURE Microglia  iStock_000006935562SmallMicroglia travel in a region communicating by tapping all neuronal and astrocyte structures. Their wireless communication to neurons and astrocytes determines how many brain cells are produced and discarded. Through both touching and signaling they find synapses that need pruning. 

They have many different receptors and pick up signals from brain and immune cells of all types. Signals can cause inflammation or stop it. They communicate with complement also, the only cell with such receptors. They use MHC at times. They have a very large vocabulary of signals to all types of immune and brain cells.

Oligodendytes Talk with Neurons About Myelin

B0006137 Schwann cell myelinating axonsIt was thought until recently that myelin was just an insulator to make signals along axons faster. While it does make communication faster where it is necessary, new information reveals much greater complexity in the ways neurons use myelin.

Neurons maintain different patterns of unmyelinated regions in different regions of the cortex, specifically to communicate with local immune cells, glia cells and regional tissue cells for specific purposes. This sideways communication from the naked axon can be with cytokines and neurotransmitters. In addition the electrical field potential, along with the shape of cells, the extracellular matrix and calcium spikes play a role in this very complex communication.

Brain Communication with Electricity

OscillationsDifferent forms of electricity are used for communication between cells. A recent example shows that color information is signaled with beta waves between two brain regions and orientation with the same beta but between different neurons.

Electrical synapses are critical to brain function with all synaptic structures first modeled in the fetus as electrical synapses and then physically built as chemical receptors. With regeneration later in life electrical synapses first create the linkages. Electrical synapses can trigger synchronous waves and can cause currents in the extracellular medium affecting synapses and neuroplasticity.

Other electrical communication occurs through calcium spikes, action potentials, and the after potential of the spike. Electric potentials, gradients and fields all communicate information such as the structure of the embryo, the shape of organs and limbs.

Plant Communication

B0008266 Confocal micrograph of Arabidopsis thalianaPlants communicate by touch, chemicals, roots, air, wires created by fungus and either sound or magnetism. Plants respond to chemicals, contact, pressure, sound, gravity, light and possibly magnetism. Dodder plants communicate with genetic material. See other plant posts for details. Some details include:

  • Plants monitor far red.
  • Dodder tastes nutrients.
  • Chili bean plants signal with either sound or magnetism to warn of the presence of the competitive fennel.
  • Fruits signal others to increase ripening.
  • Fungal wires between plants go for miles and
send nutrients and information in forests. Plants
can encourage the wires or cut them off if
threatened. Signals along fungal wires warn plants of predators.
  • Microbes and Fungus have back and forth elaborate signaling to cooperate in building nitrogen factories. Special “calcium signaling” provides path for microbes to follow into the plant.
  • Mechanical force of a single fungus cell is registered by the plant as a signal.
  • Plants and microbes self edit DNA/RNA to build attack proteins, and microRNA and siRNA; plants make a large family of R (resistance) proteins like human antibodies.
  • Dodder uses horizontal gene transfer of genetic material to manipulate other plants

Microbes

Many posts have described the elaborate signaling between microbes.

Hexagonal ReceptorsBacteria have specialized sensors in a honeycomb pattern all over the membrane. Each of the thousand receptors has extreme chemical sensitivity and triggers proteins and cascades of enzymes with responses.

Microbes secrete signals that can immobilize other cells, kill or eat prey or form a large community, such as a biofilm. Microbes integrate multiple sensors, such as chemicals, temperature and touch. Regulation of even small microbes involves hundreds, or thousands, of different one step and two-step receptors, information particles, regulators, modulators and molecular cascades. These processes use genetic stimulation and alteration of protein shapes. The microbe integrates global signals such as sources of nutrients like carbon, but, also specifically what it needs, through hundreds of signaling pathways.

From Jacopo Werther

From Jacopo Werther

Microbes communicate by injecting proteins into a cell through various secretory mechanisms. Some of these look like phage viruses or a syringe. In fact, bacteria make viruses to send messages. These proteins have a wide range of effects inside the cell including altering the scaffolding; altering membranes and the signaling from the membranes; altering the tagging systems that allow the cell to destroy microbes; and direct alteration of DNA function to change proteins inside the cell. In clinical settings, they send plasmids (circular DNA) that causes antibiotic resistance.

Human cells engage in intelligent warfare with microbes—both using the tagging system of ubuiqutin. They are, also, able to send signals with specially produced RNAs. They use many cytokine signals with skin, intestine and immune cells.

Viruses Positive and Negative Communication with Bacteria

N0013888 HIV virus budding from T lymphocyteWhen bacteria travel to a new space, their personal viruses protect them. Some viruses will only attack bacteria they were not born in. Viruses give bacteria toxins to fight other enemy bacteria; they give genes that enable bacteria to fight against antibiotics; and they give plants genes that enable them to handle drought, heat and cold.

Mucous is an important buffer zone between trillions of possibly dangerous bacteria and the intestinal lining cell. Through signaling, friendly protective bacteria and fungi are allowed to live there and fight dangerous microbes. 

Viruses can use the machinery of the cell to create toxins or antitoxins, for back and forth communication and attacks.

The Remarkable Language of Cells

B0005974 Cells with organellesThis post contains an outline of a large amount of information. For the details of each type of communication, please see the posts that are linked.

All cells demonstrate a very high degree of intelligence in their communication with other cells. There are a remarkable amount of different ways that they communicate: touching, cytokines, neurotransmitters, RNAs, peptides, genes, kinocidins, hormones, vesicles, photons, electricity, and nanotubes. Communication can involve hundreds of different signals back and forth.

It is difficult to imagine how cells can do this without a version of mind in each cell.

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  • Thanks for another mind-blowing integration of information. Some of your followers may also be interested in this link to a model of RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v11/n3/fig_tab/nrg2719_F2.html

    As you have already helped to detail, nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events link ecological variation to ecological adaptations via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction (e.g., chemical signaling in species from microbes to man).

  • Tom Nickel

    Thanks for all you do, Jon. I was a little surprised that you omitted communication-by-sound. Do you think a lot more work is needed to fully establish this recent research:
    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/282384.php?tw

  • Tom Nickel

    I think the claim that a sonic language may be the most important Long Distance communication format is something like a paradigm shift and I look forward to you weighing in on how to look at this when the time is right.

  • Jeff Graubart

    Great synopsis. My gut is that infrared bio-photonics is the most important form of communication at the sub-cellular level (protein to substrate level). Thanks again for your research.

  • Serge Patlavskiy

    Hi, Jon and all. I’ve found this site due to information allocated on the Facebook’s “Consciousness Studies” group. So, with your permission I would like to suggest several remarks.

    First. I argue that there is NO communication between cells. The case is that “communication” — it is not only sending physical signals, but also understanding of the meaning of these signals. But “understanding” presumes possession of consciousness. However, the fact is that the cells constituting multicellular organism do not possess their individual exemplars of consciousness. It is only the whole organism that can and must possess its exemplar of consciousness (otherwise it will not be able to stay alive), and, in so doing, all the exemplars of consciousness are equal in terms of the mechanisms and power.

    Second. A communication between amoebae IS NOT a communication between cells — it is a communication between all-sufficient whole ORGANISMS. An amoeba is an alive whole organism, so, to stay alive, it must possess its exemplar of consciousness too. Therefore, for me, there is small wonder that amoebae can communicate.

    • Hi Serge, you are wrong. You are conscious and that is what you have to start investigating. Everything is like you.

      • Serge Patlavskiy

        Where I’m wrong? By my consciousness I mean my ability to construct a model of the objective (real) world which existence I postulate. For me, to study my consciousness means to construct a model of consciousness (as an element of objective world) using this same my consciousness as a tool of study. However, to model consciousness is not the same as to model, say, a wall clock — I have first to elaborate more appropriate models here.

        • https://youtu.be/YXWN2qA31TU?t=47m26s

          In this video you will see, at 47:26 a little being that is formed by half a million bacterias of a few different kinds. Every single one of them is an individual being, when they get together they form a new being and a new consciousness for the big individual appears. Just like it happened when your body was created by little autonomous beings.

          All cells are like that. Be it a bacteria or a brain cell. Every one of them has their individual consciousness. And the proteins inside of them are also conscious, and the components of the proteins, they travel inside the cell to the right spot at the right moment so the machinery inside the cell can use them to form the proteins, and the proteins once formed have their own consciousness to know where to go in the body and what to do.

          Every little bit of everything is intelligent as you, and the atoms have immense intelligence also to know what to do. An hydrogen atom will make water and acids and stuff that they know. You are witnessing intelligence and order. You can teach chemistry in high school because hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms and carbon atoms know what to do. We can come up with certain laws about metals and nonmetals because they have a predictable behavior because they know what to do. They don’t act randomly they act intelligently, Purposefully.

          In order to study consciousness the first thing you have to do is to strip your concepts about nature of religious concepts or doctrines as you call them.

          You live inside a pool of consciousness and intelligence and purpose.

          Which means that you can’t be an atheist or a “materialist”, as Jeff Graubart calls it if you want to move forward in your ambitions.

          There is one big consciousness controlling everything, I call it God because I am a hippie but you can call it the unified field of consciousness like other scientists calls it.

          You are a consciousness unity, attached to an individual perception. You spoke about an objective reality, well my friend, you can forget about that. There is no such a thing as an “object”. In your world only you and your perceptions exist. Perceptions, not objects. Objects only exists as perceptions inside your experience. The concept of the objects and everything you interact with are part of your mind, your body, your thinking, everything that surrounds you is what constitutes your mind.

          You are a the individual god or individual center of consciousness that creates your individual world according to some rules, the same goes for an infinite number of entities like you that are attached to the minds of atoms, stars, planets, animals, and everything imaginable.

          Consciousness is constructed in layers of an onion. you are one layer, the cells of your body are another layer, the proteins, the atoms, the particles, the strings of vibrations are expression of the layers of consciousness. The same goes upwards, there is an upper layer that includes all humanity, and all living things in the planet and another that includes the whole planet and another that includes many planets and so on.

          Everything is conscious, intelligent and having preferences that construct the purpose that guides evolution backwards in time, aka finetuning. “God” is a giant system that includes you and everything that exist and every possibility imaginable, and everything is happening now. This is the way it is and quantum mechanics agrees with everything you just have heard.

          Consciousness is rendering a world around you and everything that happens inside that world is in function to the experience.

          Reductionist science have this backwards that is the reason you don’t want to start with materialism to understand experience but you have to understand that experience is first hormones are a quantum possible explanation decided backwards in time to answer a question about how the physical world is constructed.

          Well, nuf said. If your head doesn’t blow you can come up with some questions.

          • Serge Patlavskiy

            OK, Xavier. A very simple question to you: do you have your own version of the theory of consciousness? I mean, do you have an explanatory framework which is able to address the question of how the physical (sensory) signals transform into the elements of subjective experience, or into new information for the given subject of cognitive activity?

          • Yes, I have my own framework but in my model there are not “physical signals”.

          • Serge Patlavskiy

            Can you email me a page or two of your original ideas (either published or not)? By “original” I mean the ideas belonging to you but not to others. To the point, the electromagnetic wave is a physical signal required for you to see anything. The acustic wave is a physical signal required for you to hear something.

          • “…the electromagnetic wave is a physical signal required for you to see anything.The acoustic wave is a physical signal required for you to hear something.” If that were truth dreams would be very different.

            I can’t send my unpublished work yet but let me clarify to you basic concepts of my model.

            It starts with a vibration, that grows into a sensation that grows into a “reality”. For me “reality” is a construction inside the mind.

          • Serge Patlavskiy

            [Xavier] If that were truth dreams would be very different.

            Dreams are intellectual products we have due to activity of our consciousness. But, in this case, consciousness processes not the new physical (sensory) signals, but mostly the already memorized elements of subjective experience. Why mostly? It is because of the fact that physical (sensory) signals may affect the contents of your dreams even while you are sleeping. For example, if your cat jumps on you in your bed, you may see a dream that a big lion embraces you warmly. 🙂

            [Xavier] I can’t send my unpublished work yet

            I am not asking for your unpublished work — I am asking just for a page or two of your original and ideas, which are not self-contradictory and with all the concepts strictly defined.

            [Xavier] It starts with a vibration, that grows into a sensation that grows into a “reality”.

            It is not clear what you mean by “vibrations”, and how “vibrations” become “sensation”.

            [Xavier] For me “reality” is a construction inside the mind.

            For me, there is a difference between Noumenal Reality (the one which exists independently of our thinking about it) and Phenomenal Reality (the one which is a model of Noumenal Reality that every person possesses due to activity of own consciousness). Our consciousness always creates a model for us, and we always deal with a model of outer (noumenal) Reality, but not with the very Noumenal Reality. In so doing, we can only postulate the existence of Noumenal Reality.

          • There is no such thing as a Noumenal Reality.

            As you see I study consciousness/reality from a much broader point of view.

            A television is a device that translate vibration into an image. Consciousness translate vibration into a reality.

            I find very interesting your tone, you affirm things like “Dreams are intellectual products we have due to activity of our consciousness”. I don’t want to sound rude but I don’t think that phrase even makes sense. Dreams are a residual product of the activity called consciousness?

            I think I understand the materialistic starting point of your data but I can’t imagine how can you come to that conclusion. I’ve seen that scientific knowledge (knowledge that is the product of an experiment) has a big weakness when the researcher is interpreting data because that interpretation is dependant on the religious frame and common sense of the researcher and the chain of researchers before him that lead to that conjuncture.

            My research has the aim to settle a general frame for the science of the near future. It start with a first person experience and explores outward and inward in a coherent way, giving a principle in which all other previous knowledge can be re interpreted and fitted and all new knowledge fit from the get go.

            The model displayed on the movie Inside Out has a lot of similarities with mine.

          • Serge Patlavskiy

            [Xavier] There is no such thing as a Noumenal Reality.

            As I have said, we can only postulate the existence of Noumenal Reality. This means that we can only believe that the Moon is in the sky even when we are not looking at it.

            [Xavier] A television is a device that translate vibration into an image. Consciousness translate vibration into a reality.

            The TVset transforms e/m signals of one kind into e/m signals of another kind. Emitted from TV screen, the e/m radiation is captured by sense organs (eyes) and is transformed into physical (sensory) signal — the electric impulses propagating along neuronal paths. Then, our consciousness processes this physical (sensory) signal and converts it into information for us.

            [Xavier] you affirm things like “Dreams are intellectual products we have due to activity of our consciousness”. I don’t want to sound rude but I don’t think that phrase even makes sense. Dreams are a residual product of the activity called consciousness?

            It would be better for you to sound rational. I mean that there is no cardinal difference between my phrase “Dreams are intellectual products we have due to activity of our consciousness” and your phrase “Dreams are a residual product of the activity called consciousness”.

            [Xavier] My research has the aim to settle a general frame for the science of the near future. It start with a first person experience and explores outward and inward in a coherent way, giving a principle in which all other previous knowledge can be re interpreted and fitted and all new knowledge fit from the get go.

            That’s good. If you email me your work, then I would be able to compare our results on settling “a general frame for the science of the near future”. I call that “general frame” an epistemological framework. If of interest, I can give you a link to my published paper.

            [Xavier] The model displayed on the movie Inside Out has a lot of similarities with mine.

            Was your approach influenced by the ideas expressed in that movie? If yes, then I will better watch the movie and will not wait till you send me anything.

  • John Sanderson, M.D.

    Serge – Communication does not require consciousness, but it does require innate intelligence and information processing. in our lab we grow bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, and measure their cytokine signaling under various experimental conditions. Clearly these cells communicate with one another in a very complex language as they coordinate their activities in keeping with their functional imperatives, genetic and epigenetic. Clearly these cells not only talk (paracrine), they listen (receptors) and understand (altered behavior) and can even mimic (autocrine) to “spread the word” over a distance. Consciousness is difficult to define, let alone measure, but you can observe these cells doing very clever things consistent with their physiologic role as roving (via blood & lymph) agents of healing and regeneration, each capable of engrafting and “shape shifting” to become a cell of the type needed to restore a tissue, or act as very smart drug stores orchestrating phases of healing with a symphony of cytokines. Whether these cells are acting as individuals with or without consciousness is probably not a fruitful debate. That they possess a remarkable ability to receive, amplify, modulate, edit, and receive complex communications – purposefully and elegantly – is beyond question.

    • “Communication does not require consciousness”

      That is dumb. You are witnessing consciousness.

      There is consciousness in the cells, in the molecules, in the atoms.

      Everything is as conscious as you, thinking otherwise is medieval.

    • Serge Patlavskiy

      John Sanderson: “Communication does not require consciousness, but it does require innate intelligence and information processing.” “Consciousness is difficult to define…”

      Thanks, John, for your reaction. If, for you, consciousness is difficult to define, then it is not clear for me how you may know that “communication does not require consciousness”. When elaborating my version of the theory of consciousness I define consciousness as a natural ability of any living organism (considered as a distinct whole complex self-organizing system) to deal with physical (sensory) signals and transform them into new elements of own subjective experience, thereby reducing own overall entropy. (The overall entropy can be reduced also by taking food and by taking part in energetic interactions with environment.)

      Therefore, for me, no communication, intelligence, or gaining new information is possible unless there is consciousness in the first place.

      Xavier LópezDeArriaga Candiani: “There is consciousness in the cells, in the molecules, in the atoms.”

      I do not consider the doctrine of panpsychism as being of any help when trying to construct a theory of consciousness. Instead, I have developed my doctrine of pan-informationism. This doctrine states that for anything to exist, it must be formalizable as a system which describes simultaneously by informational, material, and energetic characteristics. Both the system{rock} and the system{organism} have certain value of their informational characteristics. However, a rock does not possess consciousness yet — it is because the overall entropy of the system{rock} is not sufficiently low for the effect of self-organization to take place, as it is the case with the system{organism}.

      If you guys take an interest in theoretical matters of consciousness studies, subscribe to http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/general_theory

  • John Sanderson, M.D.

    Jon – I would not ignore the possibility that cells might be able to use radio waves to communicate. Bacteria do so, according to some like my friend Luc Montagnier (http://www.technologyreview.com/view/423827/how-bacteria-could-generate-radio-waves/ ; http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.3113) . Now, if cells can generate radio waves, which travel at the speed of light, they can also use these for radiolocation over small or large distances, it they can use a clever scheme like this (locata.com) to synchronize radio waves between transceivers. Perhaps “cellular GPS” is more sophisticated, and more accurate, than chemical gradients which are very noisy indeed and prone to all sorts of errors. We already have evidence that whole organisms (e.g. birds) have remarkable abilities to navigate using electromagnetic waves. It is far more accurate than the sound location of bats.

  • Jeff Graubart

    The alpha-helices in proteins are just the right size and shape to act as coils and capacitors to receive a wide range in the infrared and visible spectrum. The demonstration of protein to protein communication would finally lay to rest the materialist paradigm of science (reduction of processes to physical forces) in favor of the panpsychist paradigm (reduction of processes to intentions), the physical forces being only the “quantum mechanical” averages of intentions in vitro, and irrelevant for intentions in vivo.